Insulin is known to be needed by diabetics, but it can also cause some harm to our health while controlling blood sugar. Insulin hypoglycemic effect is very obvious, so often hit insulin diabetes blood sugar is very unstable, hypoglycemic at the same time also prone to hypoglycemia, so the use of insulin to control blood sugar is a must-have approach, if not recommended by the doctor, do not use insulin to reduce blood sugar easily.
1. The role of insulin.
1. Regulate glucose metabolism.
Many people know that insulin can reduce blood sugar, but that is only a superficial phenomenon. In fact, insulin regulates glucose metabolism in five ways: promoting glucose to enter the cell; promoting glucose phosphorylation; promoting glucose oxidation and decomposition; promoting glucose synthesis glycogen; and resisting glucose xenogenesis.
Glucose is used only when it enters the cell. When blood sugar is high, the patient often feels general weakness, which is due to a lack of energy in muscle contraction. Under the action of insulin, the main outlet of postprandial blood glucose is glycogen, which is stored after a series of reactions and becomes a rapidly available glucose reserve.
The process of converting non-sugar substances such as amino acids, glycerol, fatty acids, lactic acid, etc. into glycogen is called gluconeogenesis, which breaks down into glucose when needed and enters the blood circulation to replenish blood sugar. Insulin inhibits the activity of key enzymes in glyconeogenesis, which is why some diabetics still have high blood sugar levels without staple foods.
2. Regulate fat metabolism.
Insulin has two major effects on fat metabolism, one is to promote fat synthesis, the other is to inhibit the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue. Insulin in adipocytes promotes the oxidative decomposition of activated glucose and provides a raw material for the synthesis of fatty acids. Insulin also inhibits lipase activity and slows down fat decomposition; it promotes fat tissue to take glucose and fatty acids from the blood. Ketosomes are the products of fatty acid metabolism. Only a small amount of ketones in normal blood are rapidly utilized in the liver. Insulin deficiency and impaired glucose metabolism lead to increased fatty acid decomposition. A large number of ketones accumulate in the blood beyond the capacity of the liver to deal with ketonemia, leading to serious acidosis.
3. Regulate protein metabolism.
Insulin, on the one hand, promotes cell uptake of amino acids and protein synthesis, on the other hand, inhibits protein decomposition, which is conducive to growth. The protein synthesis of adenosine growth hormone must be expressed in the presence of insulin. Therefore, insulin is also one of the indispensable hormones for growth.