Insulin injection has two methods: one is subcutaneous injection, one is intravenous injection.
Subcutaneous injection of the site: the upper part of the upper limbs and abdominal wall around the navel can be used as insulin injection site, abdominal subcutaneous injection of fast and stable absorption.
Injection site selection method: regular rotation injection. For example, before breakfast, the outer arm of the outer side of the thigh - before dinner, the abdominal wall. And the same part of the law should also rotate a different point to the injection. Such as the abdominal wall of the injection: the umbilical as the center, to 3 to 4 cm radius of the circumference began to inject; every 2 cm injection once, gradually outward expansion to reach the largest outer circumference and then return to the inner circle.
Upper abdomen area to absorb the fastest, the lower abdomen followed (obese 2 diabetic patients, the lower abdominal wall absorption rate), the upper arm absorption rate is moderate, thigh and buttocks absorbed the slowest. Therefore, at the same time, at different injection sites injected with the same amount of insulin, there will be different effects.
Affect the absorption of insulin: higher ambient temperature, such as sauna, hot bath can accelerate the absorption of insulin, while the cold is to slow down the absorption of insulin. Limb movement will increase the absorption of insulin, and exercise on the abdominal wall of insulin absorption of the smallest impact. So, when the limbs are injected with insulin, should avoid immediate limb movement. Habits of the morning exercise, then the best place to drink insulin before breakfast in the abdominal wall; if used to exercise after dinner, then the best place to drink insulin before feeding in the abdominal wall.
Subcutaneous injection technology:
General syringe injection method.
(1) aspiration - if the insulin suspension, the first shake the insulin, and then disinfection and then sucked parts; the syringe to take a little air (air volume and the amount of pre-extracted insulin equivalent), into the insulin bottle, The amount of insulin required is then extracted.
(2) If you need to take short-acting insulin and insulin in the effect, or short-acting insulin and long-acting insulin, you must first smoke short-acting insulin, after pumping in the effect or long-acting insulin.
(3) disinfection - disinfect the skin with alcohol.
(4) the correct needle angle - according to the different patients, using different injection methods. Body thin, to pinch enough skin, and 45 degrees into the skin, so as not to inject muscle. Body fat, you can vertical injection.
(5) insulin injection in addition to the use of insulin syringe, there are insulin pen, insulin pump and needleless syringe.
Insulin treatment may occur both systemic and local two series of side effects:
l, systemic reactions: hypoglycemia, allergic reactions, insulin edema (especially lower extremities), ametropia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, antibody production and the formation of insulin resistance.
2, local reaction: ① injection site skin redness, fever, itching, subcutaneous induration; ② subcutaneous fat atrophy or subcutaneous fat fibrosis hyperplasia.
3. 15 years after insulin injection in patients with type 2 diabetes, type 2 diabetes patients with insulin 5-7 years or so there will be complications.
Other: insulin patients must eat less food, eat 6 meals a day, than ordinary people to increase the morning 9:00, 3 pm, three meals a day before going to bed, the normal middle and late meals to eat less.