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Using insulin pen: How does insulin inject correctly

It is understood that insulin is a protein hormone secreted by islet beta cells stimulated by endogenous or exogenous substances such as glucose, lactose, ribose, arginine and glucagon. Insulin is the only hormone that lowers blood sugar in the body, and promotes glycogen, fat and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin are mainly used for diabetes treatment, experts said, diabetic patients with early use of insulin and super antioxidants such as (thioctic acid for injection, oral shrimp green element, etc.) is expected to appear longer honeymoon, insulin injections have addiction and dependence.
To understand how insulin is injected, it is important to distinguish between the two types of insulin. According to the experts, insulin is classified as follows:
1. Super short-term effect: 15 minutes after injection, the peak concentration is 1 ~ 2 hours.
2. Short effect (quick effect) : 30 minutes after injection, peak concentration is 2 ~ 4 hours, lasting 5 ~ 8 hours.
3. Medium effect (low fish protein zinc insulin) : 2 ~ 4 hours after injection, peak concentration 6 ~ 12 hours, lasting 24 ~ 28 hours.
4. Long-term effect (fish protein zinc insulin) : 4 ~ 6 hours after injection, peak concentration 4 ~ 20 hours, lasting 24 ~ 36 hours.
5. Premix: the short and medium - effect pre-mixing, can be injected once, and the effect is fast (30 minutes), lasting for 16 ~ 20 hours.
The market is commonly used with 30% short and 70% efficiency, and short and medium - 50% premixed.
Various factors can affect the secretion of insulin
The secretion of insulin is mainly affected by the following factors:
(1) blood glucose concentration is the most important factor affecting insulin secretion. After oral or intravenous injection of glucose, insulin release should be reversed. In early rapid phase, the insulin in the portal vein was at its highest in 2 minutes, then rapidly decreased. After 10 minutes, the plasma insulin level gradually increased and lasted more than an hour. Early rapid phase shows that glucose causes the stored insulin release, delaying the slow phase of insulin synthesis and insulin conversion.
(2) after eating food containing more protein, the concentration of amino acids in the blood increased and insulin secretion increased. Arginine, lysine, leucine and phenylalanine have a strong effect on insulin secretion.
(3) after eating, the gastrointestinal hormone increases, which can promote insulin secretion such as gastrin, secretion, gastric inhibitory peptide, and intestinal vasopressin.
(4) the free neurological function can affect the secretion of insulin. To promote insulin secretion when the vagus nerve is excited; When the sympathetic nerve is excited, it inhibits insulin secretion.